International Dark Sky Association ......Invaluable Source for Lighting Information
PREVENTING CRIME: WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN'T, WHAT'S PROMISING - Chapter 7 - Preventing Crime at Places
1996 Report to the United States Congress Prepared for the National Institute of Justice.
See the section on lighting for Open Public Spaces in cities, including street corners and segments.
From Chapter 7:
"Is street lighting an effective approach in the reduction and deterrence of crime? The answer is inconclusive. The paucity of reliable and uniform data and the inadequacy of available evaluation studies preclude a definitive statement regarding the relationship between street lighting and crime." (Tien, et. al. 1979, page 93, emphasis in the original)
"Not much has changed since Tien and his colleagues (1979) gave their critical assessment of the impact of lighting on crime. In part this is due to the lack of research on lighting, particularly in the United States. However, the limited research on lighting continues to use weak designs (typically without control areas) which fail to substantially reduce our uncertainty about the effect of lighting on crime. We may speculate that lighting is effective in some places, ineffective in others, and counter productive in still other circumstances. The problematic relationship between lighting and crime increases when one considers that offenders need lighting to detect potential targets and low-risk situations (Fleming and Burrows 1986). Consider lighting at outside ATM machines, for example. An ATM user might feel safer when the ATM and its immediate surrounding area are well lit. However, this same lighting makes the patron more visible to passing offenders. Who the lighting serves is unclear."
Report prepared by Lawrence W. Sherman, Denise Gottfredson, Doris MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, and Shawn Bushway, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland
Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting Conference abstracts from the Urban Wildlands Group and UCLA Institute of the Environment
The City Dark excerpt.........4 minute clip of the film The City Dark (30 sec. commercial at the beginning)
Preserving the starry, starry night.........CBS News 5 min video
The Day the Lights Went Out.........from the Global Explorers
Light Pollution: John Garrett at TEDxTemecula.........TED talk about light pollution
Losing the Dark.........6 minute video summarizing the issues of waste outdoor lighting and the loss of the natural beauty of the night sky.
Hidden Costs of Light Pollution.........from HIDDEN COSTS Video Series
The Night Sky: Sometimes you donít know what you had when itís gone!.........from Envision Frederick County Executive Director's blog
Skykeepers.........Includes Links to Recent Light Pollution Articles
National Lighting Inventory and Energy Consumption Estimate - US DOE 2012.........The Lighting Market Characterization study is a multiyear program to evaluate light sources in the United States, and identify opportunities for saving energy.
Light Pollution: The Dark Side of Outdoor Lights.........Overview of light pollution issues
Light and Health.........(5 min) from Philips Lighting - Basic concepts of Light and Health and how they are related
Sources For Shielded Light Fixtures:
Sky Quality Meter Log Hopewell Big Woods
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